An Analysis of American Black Andalusian Bloodlines

by Donna DeYoung, 2009

rearing black andalusian

CAUTION - there are MANY "black" Andalusians that have not been tested to verify if they are truly black (E_aa)... use caution when breeding or buying!!!! We warned YOU! Verify the color using UC-Davis dna-results. Even well-known breeders can advertise their horse as "black" and be lying!

If your stallion has tested true black and you would like his status changed or would like him or her added here, please contact me. Unless a person can demonstrate that their horse is dna-tested, I will assume the horse is "black" (not verified) and questionable.

Update: Cruz EDA is a dna-tested black stallion sired out of 2 non-black parents. Read my article "Breeding for Color - A Very Bad Thing" to understand why Cruz EDA is such a special horse. He is un-related to most other "blacks" in the U.S.

Why Blacks are Considered Rare

Why are Black Andalusians considered rare? You only need to look at the numbers. The Spanish studbook is available online and if you know how to search it, can provide very valuable information. My numbers and percentages are based on ALL the listings in the studbook (which go back to the 50s and even earlier) unless otherwise stated.


Is this the type of black you are looking for? Because if you are, there are plenty ...

Or this type? a black pony?

This might be the best you could find ... and still not be satisfied ...

And yet, the blacks will cost you WAY more than a grey horse that is ten times better.

That is why we say when a breeder gets a black from two non-black parents (like a top quality bay and/or grey), it's like winning the lottery!

In Spain, the studbook percentage of black horses is only 8%. In the U.S., that percentage of Andalusians listed as black in the studbook is even less, just 4.7%. In Spain there are 8,317 black stallions listed in the studbook and 8,789 black mares for a total of 17,099 blacks listed in the studbook compared to 216,507 total horses.  The U.S. has only 86 stallions as ever having been born in the U.S. and registered in Spain.  There are a total of 3,457 U.S. born horses listed in the studbook.

The number of black foals born in the U.S. and registered in the Spanish Studbook for 2009 was 10. Additional ones will be added as time goes on, I’m sure, since it takes awhile to get foals registered. For example, in 2007 there were 28 U.S-born blacks and for 2008 there were 20 born. Those are still pretty small numbers to select from! And keep in mind that not all those horses are proven to be black based on genetic testing. For example, the owner only puts down “black” on the paperwork and the foal may very well be a very dark bay and not black at all. I know of several examples of this. You can tell because when two true black horses are mated, all the offspring must be black. The one exception is that they could produce chestnut. But two true black horses can never produce a bay. If that happens, then one of the parents is not a black.

Grey is by far the most common color of Andalusians, making up 60% of Spain’s listings and 54% of the U.S. listings. Bays come in second with 30% listed for Spain and 23% listed for the U.S.  Unfortunately, the U.S. has a high percentage (18%) of horses with unknown coloration listed in the studbook. Chestnuts are even more rare than blacks with only 1.5% listed for Spain and 0.4% listed for the U.S.

WARNING - unless an owner verifies by UC-Davis DNA testing (or another verifiable laboratory), do not BELIEVE that a horse is black just because they say so or the horse looks black. Colors in photographs can be doctored and horses can be died.  "Black Bays" or sooty bays look very much like pure blacks.

The first "black" (not verified) Andalusian was born in the U.S. in 1983 and was named Boticario XI (Boticario ITI x Carinosa ITI). The “ITI” in the name means that the parents were declared dead for one of two reasons. Either they WERE dead and had never been inspected for approval, OR they were really alive and they were just saying they were “dead” so the offspring could be allowed to be inspected without depending on the parent(s) to pass inspection.  The offspring still had to be presented for inspection. One of the catches about this is that once an offspring was allowed in because the parents were lied about --- no more would be allowed in. It could only be done once.

These days, all Spanish horses in the studbook pretty much are only allowed in after their parents have been inspected and approved. But, because in the old days the U.S. was slow to get on the boat to have their horses inspected and we had to get there some way, some of the early horses were allowed in with “dead” parents that had not ever been inspected. Keep this in mind when viewing old American bloodlines – since you’ll never know if that ITI horse would have passed an inspection or not.

Boticario ITI was bred and owned by the Parras of Texas and was descended from very old Terry and Cartujano lines from Spain. None of Boticario’s offspring were ever black so that bloodline pretty much ends there.

The very next "black" (not verified) horse born in the U.S. was Genio III (Paraiso x Odalisca 1981) who was born in 1986 and was bred by Luis Arenas Garcia.  He was the only "black" (not verified) born and registered in the U.S. from 1986 until 1989.  Genio’s father and mother were siblings – they both had the same sire Jardinero V from Spain. Genio was purchased by Jay and Donna Hecht (Jdon farms) and went on to have quite a few black offspring and you can still find Genio bloodlines in today’s black U.S. Andalusians. They were noted for being crossed back on Navarre GF lines.

"Genio III"  -  Black Andalusian Stallion

Genio III

Jardinero V - double grandsire of Genio III

Maestro II was the next "black" (not verified) on the scene. This horse was bred by Malcom and Barbara Currie. He was sired byDejado II, a "black" (not verified) Spanish Escalera stallion, and was out of an ITI mare named Encalada ITI (Baones, Terry, Luis Arenas Garcia, and Francisco Lazo Diaz lines).  Maestro had mostly bay offspring (probably because there were no black mares to breed him to). These horses ended up in the hands of several people who got into breeding blacks – including Tina Cristiana Veder (TCV horses), Hacienda del Sol (former home of Fandango del Sol), the Connellys (owners of Navarre GF), and Terri Meador had Acscension a son of Maestro II.

Maestro2.jpg (49538 bytes)

Maestro (above)

Dejado II - sire of Maestro II

Son of Maestro II

Mahtab, a supposedly "black" (not verified) mare, was born in 1989 to the Hechts (Jdon Farms) and went on to have 6 offspring by Genio III.  Two of those are listed as bay, bringing into question either the mare was not black or those 2 offspring were not bay.

In 1991 Navarre GF "black" (not verified) was born on Gremlan Farms in California (Lanys Kaye Eddie) and eventually became the leading stallion for Mike and Connie Connelly (Manor Hill Farm). His sire was Teodoro (a bay), a well known early American horse, and his dam was Ladina (Escalera breeding).  Teodoro was by Xenophon ITI and Sangria ITI. His dam Sangria ITI was sired by an ITI stallion Caballeroso out of an ITI mare, Lisonja II.  Lisonja and Caballeroso were some of the FIRST Andalusians EVER imported to the U.S.

Navarre GF, Ladina (dam), and Teodoro (sire) 

Navarre GF was extensively bred and had 116 offspring. Just about everyone on the west coast seems to have bred to this stallion.  Many of his offspring will have “MHF” behind their name for Manor Hill Farm.

Navarre’s first "black" (not verified) offspring, Lolita a mare, was born in 1995 and was purchased by Hacienda del Sol. Lolita went on to give birth to Fandango del Sol in 1999 (her first foal) after being bred to Don Juan II.


Fandango del Sol - not black - (verified as black bay Aa via offspring tested by UC Davis).

Don Juan II is sired by Genio III (the black stallion with two half siblings sired by Jardinero V as parents) and Don Juan’s dam is also a sibling of Jardinero V! So here you have the nexus of Navarre GF (Teodoro son) and Genio III (Jardinero V lines) resulting in Fandango del Sol (with three crosses to Jardinero V). Hacienda del Sol eventually went out of business and sold Fandango del Sol to the Rothrocks who also own another early American line horse, Santiago.

Navarre GF sired many greys and bays until 1999 when he sired Solena (out of Farisea III). Solena only had two offspring – Armani (owned by Legacy Farm Andalusians) and Fiero LFA (owned by Bridled Passion Farms) both sired by Guarapo. Armani has no registered offspring and Fiero LFA has one listed.

Fiero LFA

Navarre GF then had Gabriela DM (out of Abril XXIV) in 1999 who was owned by Majestic Andalusians until recently.  Gabriela’s dam, Abril XXIV, was bred by Jdon farms and is related to Jardinero V as well (Genio lines). Her sire Agente VIII is a son of Regalado II who is by Leviton

Gabriela DM

Gabriela DM

In the 1990s the main breeders of blacks and black bays (not true blacks but look black) were Jdon farms (Genio III) and Hacienda del Sol (Fandango del Sol grandson of Navarre GF).

As a few more "blacks" (not verified) were born and horses changed hands, the scene for blacks slowly began to change and the numbers picked up in 2001 during which there were 12 blacks born and registered. By now a larger number of people were investing in "black" Andalusians. People such as Yeguada Herrera, Rancho del Sol Pacifico, Amandalusian Farm, Gina Rae Hogan, El Dorado Andalusians, Walnut Creek Ranch, Rafael Madrigal, to name a few.

Several new "black" stallion names began to appear after 2001 including Doctor XVI (not verified), Ingrato IX (not verified),  and Feudal VIII (not verified).  From 2006 and on, more variety began to appear as new horses were imported from Spain into the U.S. But let’s talk about those other basic American lines.

Doctor XVI, an Escalera stallion, was sired by Ganador VII and out of mare named Doctora VI (by Jecomias). The Spanish military stallion Jecomias will appear in many black horse’s pedigrees.  Doctor XVI was owned by the Curries in California and has had 75 offspring in the books. Hacienda Miranda (Armando and Cesar Miranda) now owns Doctor XVI. Not known if he is a true black.


Doctor XVI and his dam Doctora VI (right)

Jecomias - grandsire of Doctor XVI and Ingrato IX

Axis/Ingrato IX is by Lebrijano III (by Agente) and out of Ingrata IV (by Jecomias).  As you can see, he and Doctor XVI are both grandsons of Jecomias. Ingrato is commonly known as Axis/Ingrato IX. Axis stands at Spanish Gate Andalusians and has had 37 offspring. Breeders using this stallion include Bravata Andalusians, Vista del Lago, Aspera Terrant, Sommer Ranch, and others. Not known if he is a true black.

Feudal VIII was born in 1997 in Spain and is sired by Becario IV out of Dalila XVI.  He is owned by Glenn and Sharon Hittner. Feudal has 46 offspring listed.  Some of the breeders using this stallion include Graham Kaye-Eddie, Glenn and Sharon Hittner, Walnut Creek Ranch, American Dream Farm, Gremlan Farms, Ketchum Ranch, Rancho Del Encanto, and others. Not known if he is a true black.

Feudal VIII

In the past three years, quite a few "blacks" have been born in California from horses brought here from Spain recently. However, there is still room for more high quality blacks of new bloodlines.  And especially ones that are TRUE BLACKS!!!

I hope this article has given you some insight into the rarity of black Andalusians and has introduced you to the majority of American black bloodlines.

Skyhorse Ranch - Andalusian horse breeder in Texas with Andalusian horses for sale. Breeders of PRE Pura Raza Espanola horses with cartas from Spain. Selling black, grey, and bay Andalusians. Recommend Andalusian stallions at stud. Pictures, history, facts, and info. Spanish Andalusian horse farm. Bloodlines from Spain in the USA.

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